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Sevcan Gökalp İraz

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About Sevcan Gökalp İraz

  • Birthday September 15

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  • Hukuk Fakültesi Mezunu musunuz? / Öğrencisi misiniz?
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    Sakarya Üniversitesi,Selçuk Üniversitesi (Konya)

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  1. Vesayet davası ve vasi tayinine ilişkin hükümler 4721 sayılı Medeni Kanunun 396 ve devamı maddelerinde tanımlanmıştır. Bu yazımızda bu kanun kapsamında vesayeti gerektiren durumlar nelerdir, yetkili mahkeme neresidir, vesayet davasını açmaya yetkili olan kişiler kimlerdir, vesayetin sona ermesi, kararlara itiraz gibi konular sorular ve kısa cevaplar ile ele alınacaktır. Vesayet Davası Nedir? Velayet altında bulunmayan küçükler ile kısıtlama altında bulunan ve kendi haklarını koruma kabiliyetinden yoksun kişilerin haklarını korumak amacıyla açılan davalara vesayet davası denir. Hangi Durumlarda Vasi Tayin Edilir? Yaş küçüklüğü, kişinin hakkında kısıtlanma kararı bulunması, vasi hakkında verilen hürriyeti bağlayıcı ceza ve isteğe bağlı olarak vasi tayinine gidilebilir. Vesayet Davasında Yetkili Mahkeme Neresidir? Vesayet işlerinde yetki, küçüğün veya kısıtlının yerleşim yerindeki Sulh Hukuk Mahkemelerine aittir. Yetkili Sulh Hukuk Mahkemesinin izni olmadıkça vesayet altındaki kişi yerleşim yerini değiştiremez. Yerleşim yerinin değişmesi hâlinde yetki, yeni vesayet dairelerine geçer. Hükümlülük nedeniyle vesayet davasında yetkili mahkemenin belirlenmesinde, hükümlünün cezaevine girmeden önceki son yerleşim yeri adresi esas alınır. Vesayet Davasını Kimler Açabilir? Görevleri esnasında vesayet gerektiren bir halin varlığını öğrenen; nüfus memurları, idari makamlar, noterler, mahkemeler durumu hemen yetkili vesayet makamına bildirmek zorundadır. Kimler Vasi Olabilir? İlgili mahkeme yetişkin ve görevini yapabilecek, vasiliğe engel bir durumu bulunmayan, kişiyi vasi olarak atar. Özel bir durum yoksa kişinin eşi, çocuklardan biri ya da yakın akrabalarından birisi vasi olarak tayin edilir. Bazen birden çok vaside atanabilir. Vasilerin buna rıza göstermesi gerekir. Kimler Vasi Olmaktan Kaçınabilir? Altmış yaşını doldurmuş olanlar, Bedensel engelleri veya sürekli hastalıkları sebebiyle bu görevi güçlükle yapabilecek olanlar, Dörtten çok çocuğun velisi olanlar, Üzerinde vasilik görevi olanlar, Cumhurbaşkanı, Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi üyeleri, Cumhurbaşkanı yardımcıları, bakanlar, hâkimlik ve savcılık mesleği mensupları. Kimler Vasi Olamaz? Kısıtlılar (yani zaten vesayet altında olanlar), Kamu hizmetinden yasaklılar veya haysiyetsiz hayat sürenler, Menfaati kendisine vasi atanacak kişinin menfaati ile önemli ölçüde çatışanlar veya onunla aralarında düşmanlık bulunanlar, İlgili vesayet daireleri hâkimleri vasi olamazlar. Vasilik Kararına İtiraz Türk Medeni Kanununun 422–424. Maddelerinde vasilik görevine itiraz ile ilgili bilgilere yer verilmiştir. Buna göre; vasiliğe atanan kişi, bu durumun kendisine tebliğinden başlayarak on gün içinde vasilikten kaçınma hakkını kullanabilir. Vesayet makamı, vasilikten kaçınma veya itiraz sebebini yerinde görürse yeni bir vasi atar; yerinde görmediği takdirde, bu konudaki görüşü ile birlikte gerekli kararı vermek üzere durumu denetim makamına yani Asliye Hukuk Mahkemesine bildirir. Vasiliğe atanan kimse, vasilikten kaçınmış veya atanmasına itiraz edilmiş olsa bile, yerine bir başkası atanıncaya kadar vasiye ait görevleri yerine getirmekle yükümlüdür. Vasi ve Vesayet Davası ile ilgili bu makalenin geniş ve detaylı örneğine https://www.pilc.law/tr/vesayet-davasi-ve-vasi-tayini/ adresinden ulaşabilirsiniz.
  2. Turkish citizenship by investment has been a matter of discussion in Turkey over the years. This article will shed light on gaining Turkish citizenship by the decision of the President in Turkey within the context of Article 20 of the Regulation on the Implementation of the Law on Turkish Citizenship (No:5901). Other types of later acquisition after birth do not fall within the scope of this paper. What Are The Main Types of the Acquisition of Turkish Citizenship by Investment According to the Regulation On the Implementation of the Law on Turkish Citizenship? In the case of Article 20 of the Regulation on the Implementation of the Law on Turkish Citizenship (No:5901), there are seven main ways of obtaining Turkish citizenship through investment. 1. Through A Capital Investment Under the said Regulation, foreign capital investors may be eligible for Turkish citizenship in following exceptional states. In this context, making a minimum of fixed capital investment of USD 500.000 or equivalent foreign currency or Turkish lira, as attested by the Ministry of Industry and Technology may provide alien investors with citizenship in Turkey. 2. Through A Property Purchase In the recent decade, the economic downturn has been a matter of concern facing the international community all over the world. As a response to economic hardships, new amendments are designed for attracting direct foreign investments. Granting citizenship owing to any kind of property purchase is a leading method. In terms of real estate buyers, four main steps may be taken as follows: making an agreement on a Turkish property, the determination and confirmation of the relevant estate’s value, the examination and approval of the relevant national institutions, the proof of a title deed restriction on the resale of property for at least three years. The New Amendment on the Acquisition of Turkish Citizenship By Investment It should be kept in mind that the Turkish government took a new decision increasing the minimum real estate investment to qualify for citizenship, from the previous USD 250.000 to USD 400.000. The said decision enters into force following the Official Gazette publication in May 2022. 3. Through the Provision of Employment Opportunities Aliens creating jobs for at least 50 people may be granted Turkish citizenship. It should be attested by the Ministry of Family, Labor and Social Services. 4. Through the Deposit of A Certain Amount of Money When a foreigner deposits at least USD 500.000 or equivalent foreign currency or Turkish lira in banks operating in Turkey with the condition not to withdraw the same amount for at least three years, an additional condition lays ahead. This investment must be attested by the Banking Regulation and Supervision Agency. Finally, they will be eligible for Turkish citizenship. 5. Through A Certain Amount of Money Buying at least USD 500.000 or equivalent foreign currency or Turkish lira worth of real estate investment fund share or venture capital investment fund share is another way. The main condition is that they are not sold for at least three years, as attested by the Ministry of Treasury and Finance. 6. Through A Real Investment Fund Share Buying at least USD 500.000 or equivalent foreign currency or Turkish lira worth of real estate investment fund share or venture capital investment fund share may open Turkish citizenship certificate. Aliens should meet the condition that they are not sold for at least three years. Besides this procedure should be attested by the Capital Markets Board of Turkey. 7. Through Private Pension Funds Owing to a legislative change on Article 20 of the Regulation on the Implementation of the Law on Turkish Citizenship (No:5901), a new acquisition type of Turkish citizenship enters into force. When foreigners deposit at least USD 500.000 or equivalent foreign currency or Turkish lira in the private pension system with the condition of holding this fund for three years, as attested by Insurance and Private Pension Regulation and Supervision Agency, they may gain Turkish citizenship. Conclusion This article essentially analyzes the question of how the acquisition of Turkish citizenship by investment is possible. Bearing in mind the aforementioned evaluations, it becomes clear that there are six main methods for exceptional Turkish citizenship, as provided in Article 20 of the concerned Regulation. Every single method looks very simple and clear. However, that is not the case. There are very complex proceedings connected to each other. Substantial acts and actions should be carried out by different national authorities. Besides, there may be additional criterias that must be met by foreign investors for each. The initiation of the citizenship process through a certain investment does not guarantee an automatic ownership of citizenship. There will be various additional legal requirements for any genuine achievement. A comprehensive legal guidance and consultation is, therefore, needed for avoiding waste of time and substantial unnecessary expenses. Pi Legal Consultancy is an international law firm based in Ankara (Turkey) that offers legal consultancy and advocacy. We deliver legal services in key legal areas, among others, healthcare, real estate, citizenship, corporate governance, banking and finance, energy and mining, mergers and acquisitions.
  3. Amerika Birleşik Devletleri’nde (ABD) ev satın almak, denizaşırı yatırım yapmanın zor yollarından biri olarak görünmektedir. Bu yazı, esas olarak vatandaşlık ile mülkiyet hakkının kullanılması arasındaki güçlü ilişkinin vurgulanmasını ve ayrıca Amerikada ev almak ile ilgilenen yabancılar için ulusal yasal gereklilikleri analiz etmeyi amaçlamaktadır. Mülkiyet Hakkı neden önemlidir? Mülkiyet hakkı, İnsan Hakları ve Temel Özgürlüklerin Korunmasına Dair Avrupa Sözleşmesi de dâhil olmak üzere önde gelen uluslararası belgelerle güvence altına alınmıştır. Sözleşme’ye ek 1 No’lu Protokol’ün 1’nci maddesine göre, herkesin ‘mal ve mülk dokunulmazlığına saygı gösterilmesini isteme hakkı vardır’. Benzer şekilde, İnsan Hakları Evrensel Beyannamesi’nin 17’nci maddesi de, mülk sahibi olma hakkını düzenlemektedir. Bu haliyle, mülkiyetin korunması hakkının, uluslararası garanti altına alınmış bir haktır. Yabancı ülkelere yapılacak gayrimenkul yatırımları neden çok önemli görülüyor? Küresel mali piyasalarda büyük bir ekonomik gerileme ve kargaşa yaşanmaktadır. Bu türden bir finansal çöküşe rağmen önde gelen para birimlerinin sınırsız gücü her geçen gün artmaktadır. Böylesi bir ortamda, insanların ulusal sınırların ötesinde uygun yatırımlar yapmaya çok hevesli olduğunu görmek gayet normal karşılanmalıdır. Bu nedenle, gayrimenkul yatırımları, özellikle ticari işletmelerin bu yöndeki talebinin karşılanmasında önemli bir rol oynamaktadır. Ancak bu şartlar altında, yabancı yatırımcının, doğru ülke ile birlikte doğru araziyi veya kuruluşu bulması gerektiği açıktır. Gayrimenkul yatırım uyuşmazlıkları neden çok karmaşıktır? Gayrimenkul hukuku, vergi hukuku, vatandaşlık hukuku ve idare hukuku dâhil olmak üzere çeşitli hukuk dallarının uygulanmasıyla doğrudan ilintili olan bir hukuk dalıdır. Bu nedenle, gayrimenkulden kaynaklanan davalar, diğerlerine göre göreceli olarak çok karmaşıktır ve her halde uzun zaman almaktadır. Her bir anlaşmazlık, uygun bir çözüme varılabilmesi için kapsamlı bir çalışmayı gerektirir. Vatandaşlık süresi ile mülkiyet hakkı arasındaki ilişki nedir? Uluslararası kabul görmüş ilkelere göre, vatandaşlık doğumda veya doğumdan sonra vatandaşlığa kabul yoluyla kazanılabilir. Bu bağlamda, 5901 sayılı Türk Vatandaşlığı Kanunu da benzer hükümlere sahiptir. Gayrimenkul hukuku, genel olarak, herhangi bir taşınmaz eşyanın kalıcı olarak mülkiyetini, kontrolünü ve kullanımını içerir. Mülkiyet hakkı da dâhil olmak üzere medeni, ekonomik ve sosyal hakların kullanılması ise esas olarak ulusal mevzuata göre vatandaşlıktan yararlanılmasına bağlıdır. Ayrıca yabancı yatırımcı sayısındaki artış, dünyadaki birçok ülke tarafından endişe konusu olarak görülmektedir. Ulusal hükümetler, ulusal ürün ve markaların korunması kaygısıyla yabancı kişilere veya yabancı şirketlere ciddi yasal koşullar getirebilir. Bununla birlikte, çok az devlet, bir gayrimenkule sahip olunabilmesi için vatandaşlık aramamaktadır. Dahası, vatandaşlığın kazanılması, ilgili ülkede bir gayrimenkulün mülkiyetinin edinilmesi gibi bazı yasal gerekliliklere bağlanmıştır. Ev sahibi olmak, o devletlerde yabancılar tarafından, vatandaşlık alınmasının pürüzsüz bir yolu olarak görülmektedir. Örneğin Türkiye’de 250.000 Amerikan Doları veya karşılığı döviz tutarındaki bir taşınmazın, tapu kayıtlarına üç yıl satılmaması şerhi konulması şartıyla satın alınması halinde Türk vatandaşlığı yolu açılmaktadır. Ne var ki, gayrimenkul ediniminin yabancılara doğrudan ABD vatandaşlığı kazanma şansı vermediğini belirtmek gerekir. Ancak, ABD’de ticari bir işletme kurmak üzere ABD’de yatırım yapmanın bir aracı olarak satın alınan gayrimenkul, “kalıcı oturma izni” veya “yatırımcı vizesi” başvurusu için kapı aranabilmesini sağlayabilecektir. Bu nedenle, ev sahipliğinin, uzun vadede bir şekilde ABD oturma iznini daha kolay hale getirebilmesi her halde mümkündür. ABD’de yabancıların gayrimenkul sahibi olması çok mu zor? Bir ev satın almak için gereken yasal koşullar, esasen vatandaş veya vatandaş olunmamasına göre ülkeden ülkeye değişebilir. ABD için de durum böyledir. Bununla birlikte, ev satın almanın ABD’de vatandaşlık belgesine veya oturum iznine bağlı olmadığının altını çizmek gerekir. Ulusal yasal rejim, ABD’deki herhangi bir yatırım için yabancı şirketlere veya gerçek kişilere belirli yasal zorunluluklar getirir. İlgili gereklilikler, vergisel yükümlülükler (tax payment) ve kayıt yükümlülüğünden (registration obligation) ibarettir. Bu tür düzenlemeler, dış yatırımlar için “prosedürler” veya bir dereceye kadar “yasaklamalardan ziyade “sınırlamalar” olarak kabul edilebilir. Böylece, ABD vatandaşı olmayanlara, söz konusu ihtiyaçları karşılamaları koşuluyla bir işletme satın alma fırsatı verilmektedir. Gayrimenkul yasal çerçevesine göre doğru yasal işlem yapılırsa gayrimenkul alımı düşünüldüğünden daha kolaydır. Yukarıda bahsedilen açıklamaların ışığında, ABD’de vatandaşlığın, ev satın almak için gerekli bir ön-şart olmadığını vurgulamak kolaydır; ancak ev satın almak, ABD oturma izni için gerekecek potansiyel bir kapıdır.
  4. Turkish Citizenship by Investment Program was newly introduced on 12.01.2017 and amended on 18.09.2018. Owing to the new system, foreigners are granted to acquire Turkish citizenship through property purchase worth at least $400.000 or making $500.000 capital investment. This article intends to clarify the new system in a detailed manner with regard to the first one, namely the acquisition of Turkish citizenship by property purchase. What is the link between citizenship law and real estate law? There is an increasing correlation between the exercise of the right to property and the word of citizenship. Real estate law regimes generally involve the constant possession, control, and the use of ownership for any entity. The exercise of the right to property basically depends on the enjoyment of citizenship according to domestic legal systems. However, only a few states including Turkey and the United States do not ask citizenship for a real property purchase. For more detailed information regarding the USA real estate system, see our article on “Home Purchase in the USA”. Even more, pursuant to a number of real estate law systems, the acquisition of citizenship requires a number of legal necessities, such as the ownership of a real property in the country concerned. In that context, home purchase is considered as an easy and secure way of the provision of citizenship by foreigners in those states. How is the acquisition of Turkish citizenship through a real estate investment In accordance with Article 66 of Turkish Constitution, ‘everyone bound to the Turkish State through the bond of citizenship is a Turk. The child of a Turkish father or a Turkish mother is a Turk. Citizenship can be acquired under the conditions stipulated by law, and shall be forfeited only in cases determined by law’.[1] According to internationally established principles, citizenship may be acquired at birth or through naturalization subsequent to birth. Likewise, Article 5 of the Law on Turkish Citizenship (No:5901) has a similar provision, approving the same principle. Indeed, the acquisition of Turkish citizenship after birth is another possibility based on the decision of competent national authority under Article 9. Nevertheless, a complex and detailed legal procedure is needed. The Law in question is available online here (in Turkish). In recent years, economic downturn and turmoil has been a matter of concern facing the international community. Therefore, granting citizenship to foreigners has been used as a tool to attract foreign investments. Keeping in mind such economic developments, the Turkish government took steps for the facilitation of the acquisition of Turkish citizenship. Consequently, the term of“exceptional Turkish citizenship” is widened through new legal amendments. Pursuant to Article 46 of the Law on Turkish Citizenship (No:5901), new regulation was issued and later amended by the President on January 6 and May 13 2022. According to Article 20 of the said regulation, by purchasing a property of valued minimum $400.000 USD in any part of Turkey a foreign person will be able to acquire Turkish Citizenship. The main condition is to hold the ownership of the involved property for at least 3 years. Moreover, the involved purchase should be examined and confirmed by the Ministry of Environment, Urbanization and Climate Change. Conclusion In the final analysis, it is worth reiterating that a property purchase is one of the easiest way of exceptional acquisition of Turkish citizenship. As discussed above, buying a property in Turkey is the first, albeit not the last step to finalize all administrative procedures for the acquisition of citizenship. Indeed, it involves a number of follow-up legal steps without delay. The full process requires comprehensive legal support and consultation for a successful outcome.
  5. 1. Introduction The Turquoise Card in Turkey and its acquisition procedures will be observed in this article. Turkish citizenship by investment has been a matter of discussion over the years. For more detailed information regarding this matter, see our article on “Turkish Citizenship By Investment”. The Card holders have several privileges, as analyzed below in this paper. 2. What is the Turquoise Card? The Turquoise Card project is developed as a response to a growing demand for work permits by foreigners in Turkey. Pursuant to the Law on International Workforce (No:6735), the Turquoise Card in Turkey is designed as a “work permit” for the foreigners involved. Besides the Turquoise Card is also a “residence permit” for their spouses and dependent children. The Law on International Workforce (No:6735) is available online here (in Turkish). 3. Who can get the Turquoise Card? According to the Regulation on Turquoise Card, the Card may be granted to foreigners who are; a) assessed as qualified workforce due to their educational level, wage, professional experience, contribution to science and technology and similar qualifications, b) assessed as qualified investor due to their contribution to science and technology, their level of investment or export value, volume of employment they provide and such like qualifications, c) scientists and researcher who have internationally recognized studies in the academic area, and those distinguished in science, industry and technology, areas of which deemed strategic from the point of the Republic of Turkey, d) internationally reputed for their successes in cultural, artistic or sports activities, e) contributing the recognition or publicity of Turkey or its culture internationally, acting in favor of matters concerning Turkey’s national interests. The Regulation on Turquoise Card in question is available online here (in Turkish). 4. What are the main advantages of the Turquoise Card? There are several benefits of the Turquoise Card. First privilege of the Turquoise Card is to gain a work permit for the relevant alien. Second one is a residence permit for his/her family members. Consequently, Turquoise Card owners are granted the right to work and the right to permanent residence. Thirdly, after the observation of a specialist on the Card Holders’ commitments and activities during three years, the Turquoise Card may become permanent. Consequently, the aforementioned advantages should be regarded as long-term opportunities rather than short-term. For more detailed information regarding short-term residence permit, see our article on “Short-Term Residence Permit in Turkey”. Fourtly, under Article 12 of the Law on Turkish Citizenship (No:5901), the Turquoise card holders and their family members have an additional priority in acquiring Turkish citizenship. No additional legal requirement or documentation is needed. The Law on Turkish Citizenship (No:5901) is available online here (in Turkish). 5. What are the rights and obligations of the Turquoise Card holder? Turquoise Cards holders enjoy the same rights provided by permanent work permit. In this context, processes related to residence, travelling, investment, commercial activities, inheritance, acquisition of movable and immovable properties will be carried out in accordance with current legislations applied to Turkish citizens. Owners of the Turquoise Card exercise educational rights and take advantage of healthcare services in Turkey. They do not have a right to elect and be elected or to enter into public service. However, the Card holders do not have any obligation of compulsory military service. 6. How is the application procedure of the Turquoise Card? Applications may be brought through the Ministry of Labor and Social Security. Applicants also have an opportunity to institute an application from their home country or country of residence through the Turkish Embassies or Turkish Consulate Generals in the foreigner’s country of citizenship or legal stay. In that situation, the application concerned will be sent electronically to the Turkish Ministry of Labor for consideration and evaluation. 7. What are necessary documents? The applicants are needed to submit documents including: -application form, -copy of passport or the documents that substitute passport, -certificate of conformity, -additional documents, enumerated for workforce, investors, researchers and scientists. 8. Conclusion In the final analysis, it is worth reiterating that foreign researchers, artists, investors, athletes and intellectuals may be found eligible for the Turquoise Card in Turkey. There is no time constraint after the 3 years transition period. Accordingly, extensive legal support and guidance is needed for successful outcomes regarding applications for Turquoise Card. The aforementioned benefits of the Card are worth such effort. Every single legal step should be taken carefully for tangible results.
  6. Pi Legal Consultancy is an international law firm based in Turkey that offers legal consultancy and advocacy. Our firm consists of qualified experts, experienced lawyers and solicitors having very high level of knowledge and skills on legal matters and their cutting-edge solutions. With our dynamic and multilingual team of lawyers and experts holding advanced degrees and extensive experience in their areas of expertise, we are committed to providing reliable and to-the-point guidance as well as practical solutions in today’s volatile political and economic landscape and fast changing regulatory environment. Our clients value our multidisciplinary approach, innovative methods, in-depth knowledge and fresh thinking, and we aim for the best results for them. Trust is of essence in our relations with our clients. We always try to do the right thing, to be honest, plain speaking and steadfast in our core values: integrity, diversity, excellence and client focus. In this context, we deliver legal services in key areas, including corporate governance, banking and finance, administrative and commercial cases, mergers&acquisitions, energy and mining. You can click “Practice Areas” in order to access all our fields of work. Our lawyers provide the best possible advice to clients from various business and financing sectors to achieve their commercial aims. We also provide guidance and professional support in the creation and execution of the legal infrastructure of large-scale foreign investment projects. In addition to our English, French and German speaking lawyers, we have recently added to our team of experts Spanish, Arabic, Persian and Russian speakers who can prepare all required communication, correspondence and documentation in all these languages.
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